Science and technology have profound impact on all human activities. There is hardly any part of life that is not influenced, in one way or the other, by science and technology. In fact, they have emerged as one of the most important drivers of a country’s economy and well being of its citizens.
It is, therefore, imperative that India strives to become a leader in science and technology. Several critical problems confronting India, especially agricultural production, water shortage, education, health, energy, transportation and environment, can be solved only by development of appropriate technology.
India is the second most populous country of the world and has had a rich tradition of learning in several areas, including science and technology. Great traditions in medicine, astronomy and mathematics were established but political instability saw a gradual decline in indigenous efforts in spite of the fact that in the early part of the 20th century several Indian scientists enlightened the world with their intellectual capabilities. After Independence in 1947, India made huge investments in developing infrastructure for science and technology education and research. Today, India has the third largest scientific manpower in the world.